This is a subsidiary post of The Historicity of Adam and Eve.
The Bible not only talks about Adam and Eve in more than just the Genesis account, and it not only includes Adam in genealogies which are by their very nature historical, it also describes in books other than Genesis things Adam and Eve did. In other words, they are not just wooden figures or props in a story. They are real people who made actual decisions and experienced concrete consequences. The Genesis account alone would be enough to establish this, but if we are worried that we might be interpreting Genesis incorrectly, we have all the other biblical references to reassure us that we aren’t.
These deeds had consequences which not only lasted until the time of Jesus, they would have lasted forever had Jesus not reversed them by His resurrection from the dead. Paul’s argument in Romans 5:12-19 and 1 Corinthians 15:20-49 is that Jesus mirrored Adam in all critical points: one man…sinned…and died; another man…did not sin…and rose. Thus Jesus fixed what Adam broke. To suggest that Adam was just a fictional device violates the essence of the argument.
Here then are what books beyond Genesis say about what Adam and Eve did. (I’m keeping the list to literal references to Adam or Eve; that is, I’m not including the numerous allusions to their experiences such as references to a “the new heavens and the new earth” in Isaiah and “the tree of life which is in the Paradise of God” in Revelation.)
Romans 5:12 – Adam sinned.
1 Corinthians 15:21-22 – Adam died.
2 Corinthians 11:3 – The serpent deceived Eve.
1 Timothy 2:13-14 – Adam was not deceived; Eve was.
Job 31:33 – Adam tried to hide his sin.
Hosea 6:7 – Adam’s sin was to transgress his covenant with God.